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The GeoRef database, established by the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in 1966, provides access to the geoscience literature of the world. GeoRef is the most comprehensive AGI database in the geosciences and continues to grow by more than 100,000 references a year. The database contains over 3.3 million references to geoscience journal articles, books, maps, conference papers, reports and theses.

The GeoRef database covers the geology of North America from 1669 to the present and the geology of the rest of the world from 1933 to the present. The database includes references to all publications of the U.S. Geological Survey. Masters' theses and doctoral dissertations from US and Canadian universities are also covered.

To maintain the database, GeoRef editor/indexers regularly scan more than 3,500 journals in 40 languages as well as new books, maps, and reports. They record the bibliographic data for each document and assign index terms to describe it. Each month between 4,000 and 7,000 new references are added to the database.

A subscription to the GeoRef database also includes access to the GeoRef In Process database (so both databases can be searched at once) and a link to the GeoRef Preview database on the AGI web site.

Deep Indexing

ProQuest Deep Indexing: Earth Sciences supplements GeoRef with access to deep indexing for tables, figures, graphs, charts and other illustrations from the scholarly research and technical literature for selected records. Records from the database appear with searches of GeoRef to provide an additional path for discovery.

For additional information, please see the ProQuest Deep Indexing: Earth Sciences factsheet.

Subject Coverage
    Major areas of coverage include:
    • Areal geology
    • Economic geology
    • Engineering geology
    • Environmental geology
    • Extraterrestrial geology
    • Geochemistry
    • Geochronology
    • Geophysics
    • Hydrogeology and hydrology
    • Marine geology and oceanography
    • Mathematical geology
    • Mineralogy and Crystallography
    • Paleontology
    • Petrology
    • Seismology
    • Stratigraphy
    • Structural geology
    • Surficial geology
Dates of Coverage
    1669 - present (North America coverage)
    1933 - present (Worldwide coverage)
Update Frequency
    Biweekly with approximately 3,000 new records added per update
    Over 0 records as of May 2013
    An online thesaurus is available.
    American Geosciences Institute
    4220 King Street
    Alexandria, VA 22302 USA
    Voice: +1 703 379 2480
    Fax: +1 703 379 7563
Sample Record

    Mechanism and effect of chemical weathering of sedimentary rocks

    AU: Author
    Chigira, Masahiro; Oyama, Takahiro
    AF: Affiliation
    Kyoto University, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto, Japan (JPN)
    AF: Affiliation
    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, (JPN)

    Monograph Title
    Interdisciplinary studies of rock weathering

    ED: Editor
    Chigira, Masahiro
    AF: Affiliation
    Kyoto University, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto, (JPN)
    CF: Conference
    Rock weathering and its interdisciplinary importance, Kyoto, Japan, Feb. 21, 1998
    SO: Source
    Engineering Geology, vol.55, no.1-2, pp.3-14, Jan 2000
    IS: ISSN
    PB: Publisher
    Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands (NLD)
    AB: Abstract
    The mineralogy, geochemistry and physical and mechanical properties of rocks from four weathering profiles of Miocene to Pleistocene mudstones and sandstones in Japan showed that chemical weathering of sedimentary rocks is characterized by sequential reaction between percolating groundwater and rock-forming minerals. Pyrite, a common mineral contained in sedimentary rocks, is especially important in these sequential reactions. Pyrite is oxidized by oxygen coming from the ground surface and sulfuric acid is generated at the base of the oxidized zone. The sulfuric acid, in turn, dissolves rock-forming materials to make a dissolved zone. If the fluxes of oxygen and water are in the same direction, sulfuric acid generated at the oxidation front migrates farther and forms a dissolved zone. If these fluxes are in opposite directions, the oxidized and dissolved zones are not differentiated. Rocks in the dissolved zone are caused to deteriorate by the acid leaching and are acidic if buffering minerals, such as calcite and zeolite, are absent. In the oxidized zone, sandstone is strengthened because of cementation by iron oxide or hydroxide, while mudstone is weakened because it has greater clay fractions and larger specific surface areas than sandstone.
    FE: Features
    References: 30; illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map
    LA: Language
    PY: Publication Year
    PD: Publication Date
    PT: Publication Type
    Serial; Conference document; Analytic
    CP: Country of Publication
    Netherlands (NLD)
    DE: Descriptors
    Asia; Cenozoic; chemical reactions; chemical weathering; density; Far East; geochemistry; ground water; inorganic acids; Japan; mechanical properties; minerals; Miocene; Neogene; oxidation; physical properties; Pleistocene; porosity; pyrite; Quaternary; rock mechanics; sedimentary rocks; solution; sulfides; sulfuric acid; Tertiary; weathering
    CL: Classification
    06A Sedimentary petrology; 30 Engineering geology
    CY: Copyright
    GeoRef, Copyright 2002, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    UD: Update
    AN: Accession Number
Field Codes
    The following field codes are found in the records of this database. Here they are listed in alphabetical order by two-letter code.

    AB = Abstract LA = Language
    AF = Affiliation LL = Latitude & Longitude
    AN = Accession Number MP = Map
    AU = Author MT = Monograph Title
    AV = Availability NT = Notes
    CA = Corporate Author ON = Organization
    CD = CODEN PB = Publisher
    CE = Collection Title PD = Publication Date
    CF = Conference PG = Pages
    CL = Classification

    PT = Publication Type

    CP = Country of Publication PY = Publication Year
    CY = Copyright RL = Resource Location
    DE = Descriptors RP = Report Number
    ED = Editor SL = Summary Language
    FC = Format Covered SO = Source
    FE = Features SP = Sponsor
    HL = Holding Library TA = Target Audience
    IB = ISBN TI = Title
    IS = ISSN UD = Update

    Classification, CL=

    GeoRef classifications describe broad areas of the field of geology. Each includes a 2-digit code that, when sorted numerically, orders the categories hierarchically by subject area. The classification scheme is shown below.

    To search for a specific category, use either the word(s) or the code, eg:

    cl=(mineralogy of silicates)

    To search for everything in a hierarchy, truncate the code, eg:

    (Note, for very large hierarchies, truncating may slow the search process.

    01 Mineralogy
    01A General mineralogy
    01B Mineralogy of silicates
    01C Mineralogy of non-silicates

    physical, optical, and chemical properties of naturally occurring inorganic minerals and related synthetic minerals, mineral crystallography, including crystal structure, determination of lattice parameters and unit cells, the bonding of atoms and molecules, crystal form and symmetry, collecting minerals, as well as non-mineral gems such as amber and jet

    02 Geochemistry
    02A General geochemistry
    02B Hydrochemistry
    02C Geochemistry of rocks, soils, and sediments
    02D Isotope geochemistry

    abundance of elements, organic materials, water, trace elements, isotopes, geochemical processes and properties, geochemical cycles, geochemical surveys analytical methods such as chemical, spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray and electron microscopy instruments used for analysis
    Related topics in other fields:

    CL=05* petrology, fluid inclusions, geologic thermometry and barometry, meteorites
    CL=03 geochronology
    CL=06* clay mineralogy
    CL=12 paleoclimatology
    CL=26* or CL=28* geochemical prospecting

    03 Geochronology

    determination by absolute age methods, including radiometric and radiogenic dating; establishing the chronology of events by methods such as lichenometry, racemization, tree rings, hydration of glass, varves, paleomagnetism, tephrochronology, thermoluminescence, radiation damage, fission-track dating and particle-track dating

    04 Extraterrestrial geology

    of the planets, asteroids, the Moon and moons of other planets planetary composition, evolution, surface features, structure, motions
    Exclusions: astrophysics and extraterrestrial physics
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=05* meteorites and tektites

    05 Igneous and metamorphic petrology
    05A Igneous and metamorphic petrology
    05B Petrology of meteorites and tektites

    igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, metasomatism metamorphism, phase equilibria, magmas, lava, intrusions, inclusions ancient volcanology
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=17* phase transitions
    CL=23 volcanic features
    CL=24 modern volcanology

    06 Sedimentary petrology
    06A Sedimentary petrology
    06B Petrology of coal

    sedimentary rocks, sediments, sedimentation, diagenesis, sedimentary structures, genesis of peat, lignite and coal, clay mineralogy, chemical properties of clay minerals
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=07 marine sedimentation
    CL=24 Quaternary sediments
    CL=29* economic studies of peat, lignite and coal

    07 Oceanography

    continental shelf, continental slope, ocean floors, ocean waves (sediment transport), ocean circulation (sediment transport), reefs (modern)
    patterns of ocean circulation
    marine biology
    wave propagation
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=02* geochemistry of sea water
    CL=18 ocean basin evolution
    CL=21 estuarine studies
    CL=24 Quaternary sediments and Recent lake and sea-level changes

    08 General paleontology

    life origin, paleontological textbooks, paleontological glossaries, fossil collecting, conodonts, problematic fossils, ichnofossils (if not related to a specific fossil group)
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=09 fossil plants
    CL=10 invertebrates
    CL=11 vertebrates
    CL=12 biostratigraphy

    09 Paleobotany

    algae, angiosperms, bacteria, bryophytes, fungi, gymnosperms, lichens, palynomorphs, Plantae, pteridophytes, thallophytes
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=12 biostratigraphy
    CL=24 Quaternary palynology

    10 Invertebrate paleontology

    Bryozoa, Coelenterata, Echinodermata, foraminifera, Graptolithina, Hemichordata, Insecta, Mollusca, Ostracoda, Porifera, Pterobranchia, Radiolaria, Trilobita, worms
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=12 biostratigraphy

    11 Vertebrate paleontology

    Agnatha, Amphibia, Aves, Chordata, fossil man, Mammalia, Pisces, Reptilia
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=12 Pre-Quaternary archaeology and artifacts
    CL=24 Quaternary archaeology and artifacts

    12 Stratigraphy

    lithostratigraphy (age relationships of rock strata), biostratigraphy, evolution of land masses (continental drift), paleomagnetism, paleogeography, biogeography, paleoclimatology
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=06* reefs and sedimentation
    CL=08 or CL=09 or CL=10 or CL=11 paleontology
    CL=22 Recent ecology
    CL=24 Quaternary

    13 Areal geology

    area studies dealing with several aspects of geology, entries that might be placed in three or more fields, guidebooks, road logs, bibliographies of geology of an area
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=14 geologic maps

    14 Geologic maps

    separately published geologic maps, geologic maps with explanatory texts, separately published geologic charts, methodology of geologic mapping
    Related topics in other fields: specific types of maps are found under the specific field, eg geomorphologic maps are found in CL=23, Surficial geology, geomorphology

    15 Miscellaneous

    biography (if not related to a specific field)
    bibliography (if not related to a specific field)
    popular geology
    elementary geology (textbooks)
    general mathematical principles
    annual reports of geologic surveys and associations
    historical accounts
    education-curricula, enrollments
    directories to geology departments
    geology as a profession-career opportunities
    forensic geology-geology applied to crime solving
    Related topics in other fields: anything related to a specific field will be found in that field rather than here

    16 Structural geology

    classical tectonics (regional and local structures resulting from solid-rock movements), faults, fractures, folds, orogeny, geosynclines, deformation, structural analysis, epeirogeny, foliation, lineation
    Related topics in other fields:

    CL=18 plate tectonics, continental drift, sea-floor spreading

    Before 1975 the following subjects were found in Structural geology; they are now found in other fields:
    CL=05* batholiths, dikes, intrusions, stocks and volcanism
    CL=06* breccia, sedimentary structures
    CL=12 changes of level, paleogeography, unconformities
    CL=18 crust, diapirs, geodesy, isostasy, Mohorovicic discontinuity
    CL=22 nuclear explosions
    CL=23 cratering, cryptoexplosion features
    CL=24 glaciers

    17 General geophysics
    17A General geophysics
    17B Geophysics of minerals and rocks

    experimental and theoretical studies of physical properties of rocks
    transition states of various compounds under elevated
    temperature and pressure (applied to core and mantle composition)
    magnetic and electrical properties of minerals and melts that relate to the Earth's magnetic field
    history, development and education in geophysics (since 1981 in CL=18)
    magnetic and gravity fields of the Earth (since 1981 in CL=18)
    Exclusions: Meteorology, magnetosphere, astrophysics, aeronomy and solar physics
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=04 Extraterrestrial geology

    18 Solid-Earth geophysics

    worldwide structure of the Earth, plate tectonics, continental drift sea-floor spreading, paleomagnetism, structure of core, crust and mantle, Mohorovicic discontinuity
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=16 Regional and local structure

    Prior to 1975 the following subjects were found in Solid-Earth Geophysics; they are now found in other fields:
    CL=20 Geophysical surveys
    CL=19 Seismology

    19 Seismology

    earthquakes and elastic waves, including seismograms, wave velocity, seismic sources, seismicity, microearthquakes, microseisms, mechanism of tsunamis and volcanic earthquakes
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=18 velocity structure of Earth's interior
    CL=22 geologic hazards, seismic risk
    CL=30 earthquake engineering

    20 Applied geophysics

    applied studies not related to a specific subject including: well-logging, remote sensing, magnetotelluric surveys, gravity surveys, electrical surveys, magnetic surveys, seismic surveys, electromagnetic surveys

    21 Hydrogeology

    ground water-geochemistry, movement, resources, mathematical models
    thermal waters, springs, geysers, fumaroles, soil-water regimes, surface water-chemistry, sediment transport, hydrologic cycle (from 1969 to 1974, fewer references to surface water were included)
    Exclusions: biology of surface water, hydraulics
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=02* geochemistry of water
    CL=22 pollution of water and again after 1989

    22 Environmental geology

    ecology, geologic hazards-earthquakes, floods, land subsidence, landslides, debris flows, tsunamis, volcanoes, groundwater pollution conservation, land use, pollution of surface water (seldom covered) reclamation
    With the growth of the environmental sciences, inclusion of environmental topics has increased dramatically in recent years.

    23 Geomorphology

    genesis and evolution of features on the Earth's surface-meteor craters, cryptoexplosion features, eolian features, erosion features, fluvial features, frost action, lacustrine features, mass movements, shore features, solution features, and volcanic features
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=24 Quaternary glacial features and modern volcanology

    24 Quaternary geology

    the last 2 million years of Earth's history, including:
    archaeology, glacial geology, stratigraphy, palynology, modern volcanology, sea-level changes

    25 Soils

    soils-genesis, morphology, evolution, chemistry, erosion and classification
    Exclusions: agricultural studies
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=21 soil water regimes
    CL=22 soil pollution
    CL=23 erosion processes
    CL=30 engineering properties of soils

    26 Economic geology, general

    26A Economic geology, general, deposits
    26B Economic geology, general, economics

    commodity studies-more than one type of commodity
    mining geology
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=27* metals
    CL=28* nonmetals
    CL=29* energy sources

    27 Economic geology of ore deposits
    27A Economic geology of ore deposits
    27B Economic geology, economics of ores deposits

    metal ores-genesis, resources, economics, exploration, production and utilization (includes uranium)
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=26* general and mining geology

    28 Economic geology of nonmetal deposits
    28A Economic geology, geology of nonmetal deposits
    28B Economic geology, economics of nonmetal deposits

    nonmetal deposits-genesis, resources, economics, exploration, production, and utilization
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=26* general and mining geology

    29 Economic geology of energy sources
    29A Economic geology, geology of energy sources
    29B Economic geology, economics of energy sources

    petroleum, natural gas, coal (economic studies), oil shale geothermal energy, oil sands
    Related topics in other fields:
    CL=06* genesis of coal, peat, and lignite
    CL=26* general and mining geology
    CL=27* uranium ores

    30 Engineering geology

    waste disposal, reclamation, structures-dams, foundations, highways, marine installations, nuclear facilities, reservoirs, tunnels, underground installations and waterways when geologic subjects such as rock and soil properties are discussed

    Publication Type, PT=

    This field may contain several types of information:

    Document type, such as:
    Conference document
    Thesis or dissertation
    Abstract only

    Treatment or bibliographic level, such as:
    Analytic (eg: research paper)
    Monographic (eg: book, report, thesis)
    Collective (eg: series of monographs)
    Serial (eg: journal, annual directory)

    Type of degree (when the document type is a thesis or dissertation). Possible types are:

    To search this field, enter the unique word(s), eg: pt=(thesis and doctoral)
    To exclude records that have been indexed from an abstract only and not a fulltext document, add:
    not pt=abstract
    to the end of your search, eg:
    (precambrian and ichnofossils) not pt=abstract

    Latitude & Longitude, LL=

    If you want to search on latitude and longitude coordinates you need to enter, eg:

    LL=N383* and LL=W1114*

    where N stand for North, S for South, E for East and W for West and the star truncation will retrieve minutes from 30 -39 for 38 degrees North and minutes 40-49 for 111 degrees West.

    To retrieve records for a region surrounding the following coordinates: Latitude 38 degrees 30 minutes N and Longitude 111 degrees 40 minutes W. within approximately 10 minutes of that coordinate point enter:

    LL=(n382* or LL=n383*) and LL=(w1113* or w1114*)

    This will retrieve records discussing the coordinates from N3820-N3839 and W11131- W11149, ie: 38 degrees 20-39 minutes North and 111 degrees 31-49 minutes West.