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The ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) database is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education to provide extensive access to educational-related literature. ERIC provides ready access to education literature to augment American education by increasing and facilitating the use of educational research and information to improve practice in learning, teaching, educational decision-making, and research. ERIC provides coverage of journal articles, conferences, meetings, government documents, theses, dissertations, reports, audiovisual media, bibliographies, directories, books and monographs.

Subject Coverage
    Major areas of coverage include:
    • Adult, Career, and Vocational Education
    • Counseling and Personnel Services
    • Elementary and Early Childhood Education
    • Education Management
    • Handicapped and Gifted Children
    • Higher Education
    • Information Resources
    • Junior Colleges
    • Languages and Linguistics
    • Reading and Communication Skills
    • Rural Education and Small Schools
    • Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education
    • Social Studies and Social Science Education
    • Teacher Education
    • Tests, Measurement, and Evaluation
    • Teacher Education
    • Test, Measurement, and Evaluation
    • Urban Education
Dates of Coverage
    1966 - current
Update Frequency
    Over 0 records as of May 2013
Print Equivalent

    A print equivalent is no longer available. Historically, ERIC records were included in the print publications Resources in Education (1966-2002); and Current Index to Journals in Education (1969-2002).

Links to Fulltext

    ERIC provides links to full-text materials (documents and journal articles) to the greatest extent possible. ERIC indexes education-related materials from scholarly organizations, professional associations, research centers, policy organizations, university presses, the U.S. Department of Education and other federal agencies, and state and local agencies. Individual contributors submit conference papers, research papers, dissertations, and theses. Most of these materials are available in full-text. In addition, a small number of journal publishers make full text articles available at no cost directly through ERIC.

    Documents that are available at no cost directly from ERIC can be identified by using the “Show only results with free full text directly from ERIC” limit on CSA Illumina. Searching FL=Yes will also identify these documents. Please note that using these limits will eliminate documents that may be available through your institution. Records for journal articles may be linked to full-text available through your library using CSA Illumina linking functionality or the library’s own link resolvers. Contact your site administrator or CSA Support for further information.

Thesaurus Availability
    ERIC Project
    c/o Computer Sciences Corporation
    655 15th St. NW, Suite 500
    Washington, DC 20005
    Toll-free Phone in USA, Canada, and Puerto Rico: 800-538-3742
ERIC Microfiche Digitization
    The ERIC Program is converting nearly 340,000 documents produced in microfiche from 1966-1992, and seeks copyright-holder permission to provide full-text access online. To learn more about this initiative, or to contact ERIC about granting a release for your ERIC contributions, see
Sample Record
    TI: Title
        Learning on the Job
    AU: Author
        Hand, Alyse; Winningham, Kathleen
    SO: Source
        Community College Journal; v79 n3 p10-13 Dec 2008-Jan 2009
    IS: ISSN
    DE: Descriptors
        Job Applicants; Internship Programs; On the Job Training; College
        Students; Employer Employee Relationship; Employment Potential;
        Experiential Learning; Academic Achievement; Employment
        Experience; Thinking Skills; Decision Making; Problem Solving;
        School Community Relationship; School Business Relationship;
        College Credits; Student College Relationship
    AB: Abstract
        Many students recognizes the value of participating in an
        internship program. The experience benefits not only students and
        potential future employers, but colleges, too--not the mention the
        workforce. Internships often equip students with a competitive
        advantage over other job seekers. On-the-job programs not only
        allow students to discover the types of work they enjoy, but also
        to nurture their own talents and capabilities--and better
        understand how those skills can shape their lives and careers.
    PB: Publisher
        American Association of Community Colleges. One Dupont Circle NW
        Suite 410, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 202-728-0200; Fax:
        202-833-2467; Web site:
    RL: Resource Location
    LA: Language
    PY: Publication Year
    PT: Publication Type
        080 Journal Articles; 141 Reports: Descriptive
    ID: Identifiers
        California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory; Ohio; Florida;
    LV: Education Level
        Higher Education; Two Year Colleges
    PE: Peer Reviewed
    SF: Subfile
        ERIC, Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)
    AN: Accession Number
    PD: Publication Date
    JN: Journal Name
        Community College Journal
    JV: Journal Volume
    JI: Journal Issue
    JP: Journal Pages
    FL: Fulltext Linking
    PM: Publication Month
    PG: Pages
    F1: IVIP
    XX: LIVE
    A1: Alert Info
Field Codes
    The following field codes are found in the records of this database. Here they are listed in alphabetical order by two-letter code.

    AB = Abstract

    JV=Journal Volume

    AF = Author Affiliation

    K= Keywords

    AG = Agency

    LA = Language

    AN = Accession Number

    NT = Notes

    AU = Author

    LV =Education Level

    AV = Availability

    LA = Language

    CA = Corporate Author

    NT = Notes

    CO = Country of Origin

    NU = Other Numbers

    DE = Descriptors

    PB = Publisher

    FL = Fulltext Linking

    PV = Peer Reviewed

    IB = ISBN

    PT = Publication Type

    ID = Identifiers

    PY = Publication Year

    IS = ISSN

    RP = Report Number

    JI= Journal Issue

    SF = Subfile

    JN=Journal Name

    SO = Source

    JP=Journal Pages

    TA = Target Audience

    TI = Title

Availability AV=

    This field is relevant to backfile (pre-2004 records only). Persons and organizations submitting documents to ERIC grant ERIC permission to index and disseminate documents as follows:

    • Level 1 - Available online, if indexed January 1993 onward (Note: May have an earlier publication date); otherwise produced only in microfiche.
    • Level 2 - Produced in microfiche (submitted 1966-2003)
    • Level 3 - Indexed only

    Records from 2004 forward have no data in the Level field. Restricting a search to "Level 1" will omit full text documents from 2004 forward, Open Source journals and Level 2 documents that have been digitized.

Education Level LV=

    Identifies the specific education community for which the resource is intended.

    Early Childhood Education:
      -Activities and/or experiences that are intended to effect developmental changes in children, from birth through the primary units of elementary school (grades K-3)
    Preschool Education:
      -Activities and/or experiences that are intended to effect developmental changes in children, from birth to entrance in kindergarten (or grade 1 when kindergarten is not attended)
      -Primary Education: Education provided in kindergarten through grade 3
    Elementary Secondary Education:
      -Formal education provided in kindergarten or grade 1 through grade 12
    Elementary Education:
      -Education provided in kindergarten or grade 1 through grade 6, 7, or 8
    Adult Basic Education:
      -Education provided for adults at the elementary level (through grade 8)
    Intermediate Grades:
      -Includes the middle and/or upper elementary grades, but usually 4, 5, and 6
    Middle Schools:
      -Various combinations of grades 5 through 9
    Secondary Education:
      -Education provided in grade 7, 8, or 9 through grade 12
    Junior High Schools:
      -Providing formal education in grades 7, 8, and 9
    High Schools:
      -Providing formal education in grades 9 or 10 through 12
    High School Equivalency Programs:
      -Adult educational activities concerned with the preparation for and the taking of tests that lead to a high school equivalency certificate
    Postsecondary Education:
      -All education beyond the secondary level
    Higher Education:
      -All education beyond the secondary level leading to a formal degree
    Two Year Colleges:
      -Public or private postsecondary institutions providing at least 2, but less than 4, years of academic and/or occupational education (community colleges)
    Adult Education:
      -Providing or coordinating purposeful learning activities for adults (non-degree)
Fulltext Linking FL=

    Documents that are available at no cost directly from ERIC can be identified by searching FL=Yes. Please note that using this limit will eliminate documents that may be available through your institution. Records for journal articles may be linked to full-text available through your library using CSA Illumina linking functionality or the library’s own link resolvers. Contact your site administrator or CSA Support for further information.

Peer Reviewed PV =
    ERIC introduced the peer reviewed field in 2005 for materials published 2004 onward.
Publication Types PT=
    Identifies the general type of document. The publication types are as follows:

    010 books
    020 collected works: general
    021 collected works: proceedings
    022 collected works: serials
    030 creative works
    040 dissertations/theses
    041 dissertations/theses: doctoral dissertations
    042 dissertations/theses: masters theses
    043 dissertations/theses: practicum papers
    050 guides: general
    051 guides: classroom: learner
    052 guides: classroom: teacher
    055 guides: non-classroom
    060 historical materials
    070 information analyses
    071 eric publications
    072 book/product reviews
    073 eric digests in full text
    080 journal articles
    090 legal/legislative/regulatory materials
    100 non-print media
    101 computer programs
    102 machine-readable data files
    110 numerical/quantitative data
    120 opinion papers
    130 reference materials: general
    131 reference materials: bibliographies
    132 reference materials: directories/catalogs
    133 reference materials: geographic
    134 reference materials: vocabularies/classifications 100 Non-Print Media
    140 reports: general
    141 reports: descriptive
    142 reports: evaluative
    143 reports: research
    150 speeches/meeting papers
    160 tests/questionnaires
    170 translations
    171 multilingual/bilingual materials
    999 collected works: serial

    To search publication type, enter the unique word(s) or just the three-digit number, e.g.,

      pt=journal articles

    Note: If you search the complete phrase do not include the colon, eg: pt=(reports research)

Subfile SF=
    Search the Subfile (SF) field to retrieve citations from either of the two printed journals that historically corresponded to the ERIC database. To search for Resources in Education (RIE) or Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE) add "SF=RIE" or "SF=CIJE" to your search, eg: (elementary education) and sf=rie . This data remains in the backfile; however, note that the data has not been included for records with accession numbers greater than ED483046 and EJ679567.
Target Audience TA=

    ERIC added this field, previously known as Target Audience, to ED (ERIC Document) records in January 1984, but uses it only when the author clearly specifies an intended audience. Some entries from May 1975 to December 1983 include the retrospective addition of the terms "Practitioners" and/or "Students". ERIC has designated eleven distinct audiences:

    Media Staff
    Support Staff

    Note: Many document records do not include a target audience.